Texas Brigade at the Texas State Capitol
The brigade was organized on October
22, 1861, in Richmond, Virginia. It was initially commanded by Brig.
Gen. Louis T. Wigfall and composed of the First, Fourth, and Fifth
Texas Infantry Regiments, the only Texas troops to fight in the
Eastern Theater. Originally, the First Texas was commanded by Wigfall
and Lt. Col. Hugh McLeod, the Fourth Texas by Col. John Bell Hood
and Lt. Col. John Marshall, and the Fifth Texas by Col. James J.
Archer and Lt. Jerome B. Robertson. On November 20, 1861, the Eighteenth
Georgia Infantry Regiment, commanded by William T. Wofford, was
attached. On June 1, 1862, eight infantry companies from Wade Hampton's
South Carolina Legion, commanded by Lt. Colonel Martin W. Gary,
were added, and in November 1862 the Third Arkansas Infantry, commanded
by Col. Van H. Manning, joined the brigade. Both the Georgia and
South Carolina units were transferred out in November 1862, but
the Third Arkansas remained a part of the brigade until the end
of the war.
Wigfall resigned command of the brigade on February 20, 1862, and
on March 7 Hood was promoted to brigadier general and placed in
command. Because of his daring leadership the brigade adopted the
name of Hood's Texas Brigade, despite his brief service of only
six months as commander. The brigade served throughout the war in
James Longstreet's First Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern
Virginia. It participated in at least twenty-four battles in 1862,
including Eltham's Landing, Gaines' Mill, Second Manassas, and Sharpsburg
(Antietam). In October the Third Arkansas Regiment replaced the
Eighteenth Georgia and Hampton's Legion. On November 1, 1862, Brig.
Gen. Jerome B. Robertson became brigade commander, and Hood was
elevated to command of the division in which the Texas Brigade was
Gettysburg and Beyond
In April 1863 the brigade saw service
in North Carolina; in May it rejoined Lee's army; and on July 1,
2, and 3 took part in the Battle of Gettysburg. With Longstreet's
Corps transferred to Georgia, the brigade fought on September 19
and 20 at Chickamauga, where Hood was wounded and forced to leave
his division, ending his official connection with the brigade. In
Tennessee the brigade joined in the sieges of Chattanooga and Knoxville.
Gen. John Gregg became commander when the brigade returned to Virginia
in February 1864. In the battle of the Wilderness, General Lee attempted
to personally lead the Texans in one of the charges, but was turned
back by the admiring Texans. After Gen. Gregg was killed in October
the brigade was temporarily led by Col. Clinton M. Winkler and Col.
F. S. Bass. At the surrender at Appomattox on April 10, 1865, Col.
Robert M. Powell commanded the brigade, Capt. W. T. Hill commanded
the Fifth Texas, Lt. Col. C. M. Winkler the Fourth, Col. F. S. Bass
the First, and Lt. Col. R. S. Taylor the Third Arkansas.
It is estimated that at the beginning of the war the Texas regiments
comprised about 3,500 men and that during the war recruits increased
the number to almost 4,400. The brigade sustained a 61 percent casualty
rate and, at its surrender, numbered only 600 officers and men.
It was praised by generals Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson, James
Longstreet, and Robert E. Lee and by high officials of the Confederacy.
Thge Original Hood’s
Texas Brigade Association
Hood's Texas Brigade Association was founded in 1872 by surviving
members of Hood's Texas Brigade of the Confederate Army of Northern
Virginia. It existed until the final meeting, attended by only two
veterans, in 1933. The Hood's Texas Brigade Association was then
dissolved, but later reactivated in 1966 as a descendents organization.
The mission of the Hood's Texas Brigade Association is to honor
and perpetuate the memory of the members of Hood's Texas Brigade.
Activities include locating graves of Hood's Texas Brigade veterans
and placing markers where necessary; maintaining and repairing graves
and markers of Hood's Texas Brigade veterans; holding periodic meetings,
conferences and/or tours; researching, composing and archiving biographies
of all members of Hood's Texas Brigade; creating and perpetuating
scholarships and internships at the Confederate Research Center
at Hill College, Hillsboro, Texas; and other activities that educate
the public on the honorable legacy of Hood's Texas Brigade and its
Texas State Historical Association)